Fixed Rate vs Variable Rate: Which One to Choose?

Are you wondering which is the better option for your needs: a fixed rate loan or a variable rate loan? This guide will help you determine various factors to make a well-informed decision. Read on to know more!
Fixed Rate vs Variable Rate Loans
Fixed Rate vs Variable Rate: Which One to Choose?
You can determine which type of interest (fixed rate vs variable rate) is most appropriate for your situation if you understand how each type works and its benefits and downsides. Let's explore!
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An adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) has interest rates that fluctuate after an initial fixed-rate period, whereas a fixed-rate mortgage has an interest rate that stays the same throughout the loan term. An adjustable-rate mortgage may be beneficial in certain circumstances, even though fixed-rate mortgages are more popular and safer.

A mortgage loan’s interest rate is one of the most critical decisions when shopping for a loan. Mortgages are divided into two groups: fixed-rate mortgages and variable-rate mortgages. Interest rates on fixed-rate mortgages and adjustable-rate mortgages vary. Fixed-rate mortgages have a set interest rate for the duration of the loan, whereas adjustable-rate mortgages have varying interest rates. You can determine which type of interest (fixed rate vs variable rate) is most appropriate for your situation if you understand how each type works and its benefits and downsides.

Meanwhile, check out Beem to find the best personal loan offers for your financial emergencies. Compare different options from verified lenders and see what works for you even before applying.

What is a Fixed Rate Loan?

There is no change in the interest rate on a fixed-rate loan during its entire repayment term. Because of this, the loan cost will remain constant throughout the loan’s life and won’t fluctuate over time.

A fixed-rate on an installment loan lets the borrower have standardized monthly payments, such as on a mortgage, auto loan, or student loan. Mortgages with 30-year fixed rates are among the most popular fixed-rate loans. Many homeowners prefer the fixed rate option because it allows them to budget their payments and plan.

This is especially beneficial for consumers with stable but tight finances since it keeps them out of the risk of higher interest rates that could otherwise increase their loan payments.

Fixed Rate Loans: Pros and Cons 

A monthly payment schedule will be provided to borrowers every monthBorrowers will not benefit from a decrease in interest rates due to market forces
There’s no need for borrowers to fret about rising rates even if the market is tumultuousRefinancing would be necessary to get a lower rate, which could cost the borrower more
Borrowing cost can be calculated more easilyThe fixed rate may be higher than the variable rate in some cases

What is a Variable Rate Loan?

Loans with variable rates are those whose interest rates change depending on the market. Instead of fixed-rate loans, variable-rate loans have varying monthly payments according to market interest rates. Lenders mostly use several financial indices, including the Federal lending rate and the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). When the index changes, an interest rate adjustment is made to the lender’s interest rate. However, it is essential to note that changes to the interest rate charged to the customer are moderate. Instead, they occur periodically based on the agreement between the lender and the customer.

How do Variable Rate Loans Work?

London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) is a benchmark index in which variable rate loans are anchored. In LIBOR, banks borrow money from each other at the same rate. To determine the rate, banks are surveyed and given information about the interest rates they pay to peers.

A country’s prime rate can be used as an alternative to LIBOR. Several types of credit cards, auto loans, and mortgages use the prime rate as a reference. Federal Reserve funds rate, or overnight borrowing rate, is the interest rate charged for overnight loans to meet reserve funding requirements. Through its policies, the Federal Reserve regulates the federal funds rate directly.

When setting interest rates, commercial lenders use LIBOR and prime rates of a country as a starting point. The lender usually charges the consumer a spread or margin over the benchmark rate to generate a profit. Several factors will affect the margin charged to the consumer, including the loan duration, the type of asset, and the risk level of the consumer (credit score and credit rating).

Lenders charge consumers the interest rate based on the benchmark and their margin/spread. In the case of an auto loan, six months LIBOR plus 3% may be used as the pricing. A LIBOR-based loan means the benchmark rate will change every six months and will be subject to LIBOR. In this case, the bank charges the consumer a 3% margin.

What are Interest Rate Caps?

Variable rates protect borrowers because benchmark rates can rise to extremely high levels in the future.

It is important to note that many caps are set at very high levels and cannot protect against unforeseen market fluctuations. It is, therefore, best to take a fixed-rate loan when interest rates are low to ensure long-term affordability.

The interest rate cap structure for adjustable-rate mortgages is divided into three parts:

  • Rates can be changed to a certain amount based on the initial cap.
  • During each adjustment period, the periodic cap limits how much the rate can change.
  • The rate can increase to a certain level depending on the lifetime cap.

Variable Rate Loans: Pros and Cons

During a period of low-interest rates, borrowers can reduce their monthly paymentsInterest rates may increase, increasing borrowers’ monthly payments
As a result of borrowers taking on more risk, variable interest rates are typically lower than fixed interest ratesOver the course of a loan, borrowing money could cost more than a fixed-rate loan, depending on market conditions
The intro rate for a loan may be lower for borrowersThe affordability of a loan can be difficult to predict when market conditions and interest rates change
Fixed Rate vs Variable Rate Loans

Fixed Rate vs Variable Rate Loan: Which is better?

This discussion has some pitfalls, but the explanation remains the same in more complex situations. According to studies, variable-rate loans tend to have lower interest rates over time than fixed-rate loans.

Although history is a good indicator of what will happen in the future, it is only sometimes accurate. A borrower must also consider the amortization period of a loan. A change in interest rates will significantly impact your payments if your loan has a more extended amortization period.

It depends on whether a fixed or variable rate loan is a better option, depending on the borrower’s financial profile and preferences. Make sure you consider your cash flow, financial flexibility, and the need for security when deciding on your security needs. The variety of loan products available caters to the needs of different borrowers, as some have different situations.

Choosing a rate requires consideration of several factors, including:

1. Trends and Forecasts in Interest Rates

In general, locking into a fixed rate agreement is advantageous if you think interest rates will rise (at least in the short term). A variable rate agreement may be a good option if interest rates drop shortly.

2. Interest Rate Spread

Sometimes, you may want one type of loan, but you can only afford it with a high-interest rate. Despite your desire to pursue one, you should always consider the terms for both. A fixed loan versus a variable loan offers some differences that may sway your decision.

3. Loan Term

While no one can predict long-term economic conditions, short-term conditions can decide if you do not expect to have debt for a long time. It may be integral for home buyers to understand fixed and variable rates, but these terms are also available for much shorter debts.

4. Estimates of personal income

Security is needed when deciding whether to go with fixed or variable rates. When developing your income, consider your current savings, job stability, and future salary growth. Having more disposable income to cover rising expenses decreases the risk of variable rates if you plan to earn more.

Student Loans

Those with little credit history or low credit scores should choose a fixed rate option when applying for a federal student loan.

Unlike private loans, Federal loans do not adjust rates based on the borrowers’ financial circumstances. If you want to refinance your student loan or have good credit, a variable-rate loan can help you get a lower rate.

Federal loans come with fixed interest rates, generally the most popular lending option for student borrowers. Private and federal loans with variable rates are available to those considering refinancing or choosing between the two.


For homebuyers, market conditions must be considered when studying mortgage interest rates.

Adjustable-rate mortgages can be advantageous for prospective homebuyers who plan to sell their house in a few years or refinance their mortgage. They have lower fees initially, making them more affordable than fixed-rate mortgages.

If you plan to have a mortgage for a long time, it’s most important to determine that.

You can lock in a lower rate on an ARM if the rate starts adjusting once it starts adjusting on an ARM. Over 30 years, a 0.25% or 0.50% difference in an interest rate can mean tens of thousands of dollars on an obligation of this kind.


Q. Is a variable or fixed rate better?

During periods of falling interest rates, variable rates are preferable. Nonetheless, there is a risk of higher interest rates at increased borrowing costs if market conditions move toward rising interest rates.

In contrast, a fixed rate is better if reducing risk is the primary objective. Additional costs may be associated with the debt, but borrowers will know precisely what their payments and repayment schedule will look like.

Q. Is a variable or fixed rate lower?

Macroeconomic conditions often influence variable rates and fixed rates. During economic stagnation or recession periods, the Federal Reserve usually lowers interest rates to encourage business activity. The Federal Reserve will increase interest rates to combat inflation instead of prioritizing unemployment.

Q. What is the danger of taking a variable-rate loan?

You will be subject to unpredictable market conditions since interest rates are based on market conditions.

Using a variable rate contract, you have yet to learn the future interest rate assessment. The result may be that you need more cash flow to make minimum payments due to the possibility of future increases in those payments.

Q. Do variable rates ever go down?

The interest rate for variable loans can rise or fall depending on the market conditions. During periods of slower economic activity, interest rates are more likely to decline. When the Federal Reserve lowers rates, it creates more jobs and encourages business development. This lowers the borrowing costs for loans with a variable interest rate.

Q. Can I switch from a Variable Rate to a Fixed Rate?

Lenders will likely let you convert your variable rate to a fixed one. When you convert your loan terms, you usually have to pay fees. A variable rate agreement is less common than a fixed-rate agreement.

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Raman Gujral

An achievement-oriented professional, Raman has 10+ years of experience in B2B SaaS and B2C products across Fintech, Telecom, Digital Media, Social Media and Logistics domains. Defining and communicating product vision and strategy, product roadmap development, product positioning, and data analysis, he is also an expert in health insurance and personal loans content.


This page is purely informational. Beem does not provide financial, legal or accounting advice. This article has been prepared for informational purposes only. It is not intended to provide financial, legal or accounting advice and should not be relied on for the same. Please consult your own financial, legal and accounting advisors before engaging in any transactions.

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